CBI: Central Bureau of Investigation, Central Bank of India

CBI stands for Central Bureau of Investigation; it is India’s chief investigating agency. It is operated under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Government of India. 

When we go in history, it is learned that the CBI was formed just to investigate Bribery and corruption in the government. However, in the year 1965, it got expanded in the jurisdiction to investigate international cases, crimes of the states, and cities. The service of CBI is enforced by the Indian Government to ensure security and fair policy among the citizens.

Apart from the mentioned acts, CBI is also known to investigate special crimes, economic crimes, and corruption cases across the country.

About CBI:

Central Bureau of Investigation was formerly called SPE, Special Police Establishment. It was made in the year 1941. However, it was renamed CBI in the year 1963 by the Home Ministry of India. The headquarters of CBI is located in New Delhi. 

The head of CBI is the Senior IPS officer; other members of the team include the Deputy Inspector General of Police, Superintendent of Police, Sub-inspector, and a few constables. 

The Prime Minister of India is made the Chairman of the Committee under whom the team of CBI works. 

CBI is known to solve many national cases and those which have been considered unsolvable. It is because they follow a neat and transparent process throughout the investigation. 

D.P. Kohli was known to be the first director of CBI. In the year 1987 CBI was divided into two sectors- Anti- Corruption Division and Special Crime Division. 

Functions of CBI:

CBI is the main investigating agency of the Government of India, we will discuss a few of the functions of CBI below:

  • CBI derives its powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946. The main function of CBI is to prevent corruption and maintain the law and order of the country.
  • CBI works under the supervision of the Central Vigilance Commission in issues related to the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988.
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation is famous for solving serious crimes, such crimes are known to be having National and international consequences. Such crimes are learned to be committed by professional criminals and professional gangs.
  • The officers of the CBI team are responsible to coordinate and work with the police forces and anti-corruption agencies of all the states of India.
  • The team will work hard to analyze and maintain the crime statistics of different states and Governments. 
  • One of the main functions of the CBI team is to investigate income tax, foreign exchange regulations, customs, etc.
  • CBI has the authority to take up the case from the State Government and investigate the case if it is of Public importance.


According to the survey done in 2021, there are approximately 700 corruption cases and criminal cases pending with the CBI team. CBI takes time to investigate and solve the cases depending on the severity. 

A well-known fact is CBI team doesn’t have any dress code; they are free to wear any formal dress during working hours. 

However, with all the importance and power given to the CBI team, it has come to light that the CBI has been associated with one of the top ruling parties of India. CBI has been accused of targeting the opposition and registering different types of cases against the leaders who are opposing the ruling party. 

If you wish to become a CBI officer you must pass the Civil service Exam which is conducted by UPSC. If you clear the exam with good grades and on the first attempt, then there is a chance that you might get listed as an A-list officer in the CBI team.

CBI is not superior to the on-ground functioning State Police, there has to be mutual consent to take some action. However, CBI is considered a central agency that can function in all the states. 

The main difference between Police and CBI is that Police is responsible for diverse tasks for the State Government and CBI is authorized to solve and investigate crimes and is considered as an investigating agency. 

CBI cases:

The cases handled by the CBI team are divided into three categories such as:

  1. Economic Crimes: A team of the Central Bureau of Investigation is responsible for investigating the major financial scams and economic frauds done in India. Some of the categories are bank frauds, cybercrime, import and export foreign exchange violations, smuggling of drugs on a large scale, smuggling of antiques, etc.
  2. Special Crimes: this department investigates the serious crimes that are mentioned under the Penal Code and other laws however order from the State Government, High court, and Supreme Court is required. Cases of terrorism, bomb blasts, kidnapping, and mafias. 
  3. Anti-Corruption Crimes: This involves the investigation of cases that fall under the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA) against the Public Officials and Central Government Employees, Public Sector Undertakings all owned by the Indian Government. 
  4. Suo Moto cases: Suo Moto is referred to as that condition in which CBI can take up any case of their choice without the intervention of others. However, Central Government has made it official that these types of cases must be taken up only by the consent of the State government of that particular state. Supreme Court and High court are authorized to give orders to the CBI team to take up any case and in this situation, there is no need for consent from the State Government.